PHONOLOGY AND PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION
"Phonetics is concerned with describing speech."
What can a phonetician do?
- Describe speech.
- Understand the mechanism of speech production and speech perception.
- Knows how language use these mechanisms.
- No more than a useful tool that phoneticians use in the description of speech.
- Recording all the variations between sounds that can cause a difference in meaning.
- Transcribing a word in a way that shows none of the details of the the pronunciation that are predictable by phonological rules.
- Two sounds that can be used to differentiate words.
- We cannot rely in the spelling to tell us whether two sounds are members of different phonemes.
- A phoneme is not a single sound, but a name for a group of sounds.
- They are abstract units that form the basis for writing down a language systematically and unambiguously.
- The style of speech you use to show someone how to pronounce a word.
- Transcriptions of citation style are particularly useful in language documentation and lexicography.
- It serves as the basic phonetic transcription of connected speech.
- The style that is used in normal conversation.
- When they transcribe a citation speech utterance, they are concerned with how the sounds convey differences in meaning.
- Describe the significant articulations rather than the details of the sounds (i.e., Broad transcription).
- The description of the systems and patterns of sounds that occur in a language.
- Involves studying a language to determine its distinctive sounds, that is, those sounds that convey a difference in meaning.
- The set of rules or constraints that describe the relation between the underlying sounds.
- Its abstract units are called phonemes.
- Its observable units are called phonetic form.
1. THE TRANSCRIPTION OF CONSONANTS
- Begin by searching for phonemes, consider contrasting consonants that differ by only one sound (i.e., minimal pairs/sets).
What is a minimal set?
- A set of words in which each differs from all the others by only one sound.
- [θ] "theta"
- [ð] "eth"
- [ʒ] "ezh" or "long z"
- May also be written as [ž].
- Affricates & Digraphs
- May also be written as [č].
- May also be written as [ǰ].
- [ ͡ ] Ligature symbol
- Used to make explicit that we are writing an affricate and not a consonant cluster.
- [tʃ] (e.g., white shoes)
- [t͡ʃ] (e.g., why choose)
- The glottal stop that begins words that are spelled with an initial vowel.
- Dialectal difference
- In American English, [ʔ] may only occurs word initially before vowels.
- In London Cockney or other dialects that have a variant of [t], [ʔ] may appear between vowels in words and is usually pronounced with simultaneous glottal stop [t͡ʔ].
- Some speakers contrast which and witch. These words are transcribed with [hw].
2. THE TRANSCRIPTION OF VOWELS
What are the challenges in English vowel transcription?
- Accents differ more in their use of vowels than in consonants.
- Authorities differ in their views of what constitutes an appropriate description of vowels.
- Movements from one vowel to another within a single syllable.
- [ə] "schwa"
- Most common unstressed vowel.
- [ʌ] "wedge"
- Often represents x.
- Often represents the unusual English r sound.
- Add this diacritic to distinguish sounds that differ in length.
- Never used when making phonemic transcriptions.
- Add this diacritic to indicate the r-coloring of a vowel.
- A stress mark that has been placed before the syllable carrying the main stress.
- Stress must always be marked in words of more than one syllable.
- [ ̪ ]
- Added under a symbol to indicate that it represents a dental articulation.
- [ ̥ ]
- Used to indicate that the symbol representing a voiceless sound.
3. CONSONANT AND VOWEL CHARTS (in English)
What is the difference between slashes and square brackets?
- /phonemes/ = /phonemic transcriptions/ = /underlying form/
- [allophones] = [phonetic transcriptions] = [surface form]
- Small marks that can be added to a symbol to modify its value.
- Increases the phonetic precision of a transcription.
- The variants of the phonemes that occur in detailed phonetic transcriptions.
- They can be described as a result of applying the phonological rules to the underlying phonemes.
- Often used to designate a transcription that uses the simplest possible set of symbols.
- Often used to designate a transcription that shows more phonetic detail, either by using more specific symbols or by representing some allophonic differences.
- Systematic phonetic transcription
- A narrow transcription so detailed that is shoes the allophones with all the rule-governed alternations among the sounds.
- In practice, this is difficult.
- A transcription that may not imply the existence of rules accounting for allophones.
- In these circumstances, the symbols indicate only the phonetic value of sounds.